1. NMJ 1972:789

  2. NMJ 1972:64

  3. NMJ 1972:217

  4. NMJ 1972:182

  5. NMJ 1972:63

  6. Simple village festival: 1 village, 1 ujiko-association, 1 village god, ujigami, 1 fixed cult sign.

  7. Complex festival with several settlements units, cult-groups, shrines and cult signs.

  8. NMJ 1972:672

  9. Note that each village has its own ujigami-shrine (1-12)

  10. Some were moved to the periphery of the newly founded town, according to oral tradition in Kitanosho.

  11. KNCD 1979:77Off. (Omihachiman-shi)

  12. This was probably the origin of the bipartition which can still be seen at the festival (see below).

  13. Japanese reading is yahata, 'eight flags'. Consequently his origins are seen in early flag-cult (hata), his original shrine is in Usa in the ancient Buzen-province on Kyushu. In connection with copper ores he gained importance at the construction of the great Buddha at the Todaiji in Nara and found access to the central regions. During the Heian period he was brought together with the emperor Ojin and found enshrinement at the Iwashimizu-Hachiman-shrine south of Kyoto where he came to be considered the protector deity of the imperial palace and the ujigami of some aristocratic families. The Kamakura bakufu made him the protector of the samurais (NMDJ).

  14. MGJ 1972:252 jigami; FJ 1957:472 chinjugami; NMJ 1972:303 jigami,: 320 jinushigami.

  15. NMJ 1972:72, NKSJ 1974:199

  16. The Taika-reform of 646, later Taiho-codex (701) and the Yoro-codex (718/757) declared all land as ownership of the state. This leads to a long process of measuring the land of the farmers according to a standarized system called jorisei (Lewin 1968).

  17. Shrines listed in the 'list of deities names' (shinmeishiki) in the codex >English< (710). Their Shinto rites had to be performed according to the prescription of the legislation introduced from China during the 7th and 8th centuries (ritsu-ryo-kyaku-shiki) NKSJ 1974.

  18. Sagicho, 'tripod', New Year‘s hut diffused all over Japan. It is set up in the precinct of the village shrine around New Year and burnt thereafter. NMJ 1972:283.

  19. Regarding our interpretation of the taimatsu-matsuri in the region in general, see Egenter 1982, introduction and glossary.

  20. See Florenz 1919, >Kojiki<, 1st book, 1. 'The beginning of heaven and earth': first generation of gods; see also >Nihongi<.

  21. See NSGJ 1968:372 and Tsukitake 1966.

  22. Kami = upper, villages situated further inland; shimo = lower, villages situated nearer to the lake.

  23. This often express the higher hierarchcal order of fixed cults signs at festivals in front of central shrines. The uchi-matsuri type usually is wound only once.

  24. Fire at those times was a dangerous weapon. In 1571 Oda Nobunaga burnt down the large temple precints on Mount Hiei in the northeast of Kyoto to break the powerful Buddhistic influence on the capital. Thousands of monks were brutally killed.

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