- continued -

20) Within the house the sacred place on the "board for the gods" (kamidana) is decorated with holy cult signs (sh™gatsusama), or, in other words, the place is marked (acc. to Haga 1959)

21) Doormarkers are usually interpreted as decorations of the entrance gate for the New Year (kadomatsu). But the primitive techniques by which they are prepared shows clearly that we are dealing with a type of custom which is much older than that which produced the structure of the highly developed wooden house.

22) New Year's door-markers (kadomatsu) from various regions of Japan (acc. to Yanagita 1951)

23) Primitive altar for the returning souls on the occasion of the festival of dead souls (O-bon).

24) The Japanese garden as an art form using natural materials and as an object of meditation: the daily and seasonal impacts of Nature on its formal elements allow the people dwelling at this place to realise their humble position within the cosmos (acc. to Yoshida 1935)

25) Access-place-scheme: The picture shows a small shrine in the woods (Saigy™-Monogatari-Emaki, 13th Century). The shrine marks a place within nature, the torii the access path leading to it (acc. to Kageyama 1973)

26) Access-place scheme: Hypothetical reconstruction of the inner Ise-shrine precincts (™daijingž ™miyain) as it is supposed to have been in ancient times (acc. to Fukuyama). In former times the symmetry would have been more dominant than today, with five gates along the access path leading to the main shrine (sh™den) (acc. to It™ 1977)

27) Access-place scheme: section of the Kasuga shrine Mandala. At the lowest part and in the centre a gate is set up (torii). In the higher regions of the picture the shrine complex of Kasuga shrine is found at the foot of the Kasuga mountain of Nara. Here too a particular topographical region is marked. Access and place form a polar unit (acc. to Kageyama 1973).

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