FIGURES AND FIGURE CAPTIONS



1) Some typical Japanese farmhouses (acc. to Minzokugaku jiten)



2) Illustrations of ancient types of houses and granaries based on archaeological documents (acc. to It™ 1977)



3) Perspective view of a farmhouse in Niike (Okayama Pref; acc. to Beardsley 1959). The house only differs in its dimensions from similar urban houses; with regard to its construction it is not much different either. Here too the clear division into a lower "earth-room" (doma) and a higher dwelling part is evident.



4a) Schematic representation of the development of spatial division of the Japanese farmhouse (acc. to Eder 1963). It begins with a two-part basic type with entrance on the side of eaves or gable. One type develops by enlargement, the other by greater depth. All further developments are variants of these basic types (genkei).



4b) Slightly different interpretation of the development of spatial division of the Japanese farmhouse from an original one-roomed "primitive type" (1) (genshikei) to the bipartite basic type (2) [note here that the "primitive" one-roomed Ainu-house is ideologically bipartite! See Egenter 1989e]. On the left side the development to the three-roomed type (sanmakata) and the four-square type (tanojigata) and its variation with interlocked rooms (kuichigaugata) is shown: the kitchen has been placed behind the hearth-room (dei) and a sacred pillar (daikokubashira) is found in this type between earthen part and higher floor of the dwelling part. On the right side the hearth-room (dei) dominates the upper part of this large-room type (3) (hiromagata). All these types have their entrance on the eaves-side. The type presented with the number (4) at right has all upper dwelling-rooms lined up in one row (heiretsukei) and the entrance is gable-sided. Note that the basic bipartition remains essentially the same through all different types.



4c) Another interpretation from basically bipartitioned type (A) to variations of the three room type (B1-3) to variations of four and more rooms (C1-3) to the four squared type D and the type with six rooms (E). The numbers give the designation (function) of the rooms: 1 earth-room (doma), 2 living-room (ima), 3 kitchen (daidokoro), 4 sleeping room (nema), 5 ceremonial room (zashiki). The doma is assumed to remain practically the same; the development takes place in the upper part. The kitchen, originally undifferentiated, finds its definite place and the ceremonial part tends to become more and more important (acc. to It™ 1969).



5a) Map of Japan with 13 types of farmhouse plans (Minzoku jiten). All types show a bipartition into lower earth-room (doma or niwa) and upper dwelling part with partitioned rooms (some with open living room (oe).



5b) Four Japanese housetypes in perspective view with main characteristics: all show lower earth-room (doma) and upper dwelling part (acc. to Beardsley 1986)



6) View from earth-room (doma) towards the upper part built on piles of an old house in Hyogo prefecture. On the left one can see into the "ceremonial room" (zashiki), on the right into the living room (ima) and, at the rear, into the sleeping room (shinshitsu) (acc. to Yoshida 1971).



7) The ancient type of doma is not closed off from the roof as in the case of the upper dwelling part. There is an unhindered view of the roof-construction, which is supported by heavy and naturally bent wooden beams. Usually these irrationally crooked beams are interpreted as stabilisation against the impacts of earthquakes, but they are certainly also an expression of ancient formal concepts, of an archetypal design, which works with polar contrasts (acc. to Yoshida 1971).



8) Plan of the main shrine of the ancient Sumiyoshi-shrine of Osaka. The internal space is bipartitioned. A thin wall secludes and unites an inner sacred part and an outer access room in polar relation. (acc. to It™ 1977)



9) Synopsis of several types of the most ancient shrines of Japan. The styles are as follows on the right: 1. Taisha-, 2. Shinmei- and 3. Sumiyoshi-styles; on the left: 4. Kasuga-, 5. Nagare-, 6. Hachiman- and 7. Hiyoshi-styles. 1, 3, 6, and 7 show polar bipartition of the enclosed sacred space: an "interior" (rear) and exterior (front) part can be clearly distinguished. In all these cases the sacred room is a closed construction on stilts with planked upper floor showing just one frontal opening on the side of the eaves or gable. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 all are provided with verandas surrounding the building (4 only has one on the front). All types show stairs connecting the ritual ground in front with the sacred door of the shrine, and all (except 2 and 3) show either unsupported extensions of the front roof or special accessory roofs which cover (and emphasise) the openness at the access space. They relate to the polar >place-access< concept of the whole arrangement (acc. to Ent™ 1974).


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