1 Figural: Standing subject, movement (or walking) subject. Architectural: demarcated place (or monument) subject, (access-) path subject. In regard to 'demarcated place': the German term 'Mal' implies demarcation on the elementary level adding some more or less durable semantic change to the natural environment. In an evolved sense it can also mean 'monument'. Since Frey relates the term to the rather monumental architectural demarcation of a place we use both terms, either 'demarcated place' or 'monument'. In regard to 'path subject': in German the word 'Weg' means path, way and is part of the term 'Bewegung' (Be-Weg-ung, movement) implying movement applied to a path. Since Frey's examples are all focussed on polar concepts of monuments and access paths we use the term 'access-path'.
2 This is a hypothesis developed ethno-historically in Japan. Shinto cults show a surprising multitude of sacred mountains (yama) which are not natural, but artificial. Such a sacred mountain can consist of a basketlike woven object carried along in cult processions. In one particular region (Okayama) about 15 to 29 meters high 'sacred mountains' are built with large quantities of wood, marking the temporary seat of a deity during the cult festival at a particular permanent Shinto shrine. On top of this mountain a small wooden shrine is found. Usually a local deity lives in this type of mountains, but after the festival it returns to the permanent shrine. Since temporary sanctuaries and seats of deities are evidently survivals of prototypes or antecedents of the Japanese wooden shrines derived from Chinese wooden temple construction, we can assume that these artificial sacred mountains are of high - very likely Neolithic - age. Thus we can formulate another hypothesis, namely that the artificial sacred mountain existed before the natural sacred mountain. With this paradoxical formula we become aware that the frequently used 'nature - culture' dichotomy is in fact a 19th century Eurocentrism which can not be maintained anymore today. We are aware of the very long processes factually involved.
3 In my study on the origins of script the translation of a Babylonian myth can be found. The text is clearly related to the Reed milieu of the Euphrat and Tigris region and it is in fact a legal text. Its "nothing before and after there is life" formula describes the foundation of a place, a small spot where a marker made of reed is made to represent the seat of a deity. Later the place might have become the centre, the temple of a town, of a city, of a state. It is in fact a constitution. It combines elements of two levels: fibrous demarcation of the sacred, corresponding to agrarian village cultures and the fact that it is verbalised and written down is definitely an urban element. It must be an early text. The description is very clearly related to the Mesopotamian environment of river plains in which reed may indicate an early phase of settlement.
4 Cult patterns of this type have been submerged by Eurocentric theological interpretation. In order to understand the polar meaning of place at rest and the 'ek-static' dynamisms with monumentalised sacred figures of deities, it is important to understand the concept of 'nuclear demarcation' which was the primary type of territorial demarcation. Spatially expanded 'circular' types of early empires are known for their peripheral borders and difficulties with them. The primary type was 'nuclear' within the settlement sending its bordering code from the inside towards the outside. It continued into the circular empires not only as middle, but as centre. Rome and its 'urbi et orbi' postulate. Evidently it is important to know the 'mechanism' of this survival.
5 Such sentences are a relic of the Eurocentric Antiquity enthusiasm of the 19th century. We could not write them anymore like this, particularly also because the 'design' aspect is not subjectively intact anymore. Sanctuaries are to a great extent part of an extremely conservative human domain in which ritual and cultic traditions to a great extent define layouts and forms. The Egyptian temple for instance is to a great extent a concretisation of ritual and cultic traditons. Design is limited on size and ingeneering criteria. Interesting in this context is Andrae's Theory. The Ionian and Corinthian columns are closely related to the explicitely bundeled Egyptian columns.That was in fact clearly shown by W. Andrae.
6 We have mentioned it already: Frey interpretes architecture of a non European culture from what we know in Europe about the spiritual backgrounds of this culture. But this may be very misleading. It rests on the apriori assumption that all architectures are designed by man and, since they are artful archtitecture, they are created within the framework of the history of ideas. This is the historical standpoint. Architectural anthropology tends rather to the opposite. According to this position, premodern architecture is to a great extent the relatively strict tradition, the handing down of particular architectural forms which had their origins in the depths of time and always had great impacts on social order and human worldview. The 'software' about certain architectural forms parallels the material tradition of production and thus often leads to a mysterious ontological value of certain forms. Definitely the Ionian and Corinthian columns are of this type. In view of their pre-monumental polar structure, they can be considered as visual signs and symbols profoundly related to hominisation. Who would dare to design them as 'piloti'?
7 In his organon Aristotle already has emphasised the categories as an elementary cognitive relation. In fact humans have them cognitively in common with most animals equipped with adequate sensory systems. Stability and movement, many behavioural patterns are structured according to this complementary pair. However in the animal world contrasting categories remain isolated, are perceived as entirely different environments (outside / inside). The key to the human condition lies in the connection of two opposites to form a contrasting unit. Very likely this important capacity for hominisation developed during the long phase of territorial control using fibrous toposemantic signs.
8 Frey very clearly outlines a research program for architectural anthropology.
Conseuently it corresponds fairly to what we do in the present study.
Main Text part 1, 2