Demarcated place subject

In this paragraph too Frey's method shows its problematic aspects. He essentially explains the formal characteristics of the Greek temple with what we know historically about the psychology of the Greeks. He also contradicts himself in view of earlier descriptions. Naturally the temple in the natural environment can assume the character of a demarcation of place (e.g. the port deity Poseidon Soter of Sunion, or Nike temple on Akropolis). However, the Greek temple in general lacks the strong centralisation, the equivalence of all sides, qualities which are characteristic for the real place marker. It is axially directed, shows a facade, a 'face'.

The Greek temple is a plastic individuality. Fire sacrifices are not celebrated inside but in front of the temple interpreted as a monument. The cubic building of the cella without windows is not a block according to Frey but a hollow spatial unit. In this sense he considers it different from the Pyramid and the Zikkurat, as well as of the cave like cella of the Shikhara in India. It meant house and represented this concept and in this sense it is different from the Babylonian apparition temple which is symbol of the gate. The inside of the Megaron is formed towards the outside as plastic unit, says Frey and this is the most important aspect of Greek architecture. This extraversion is very different and new in comparison with the Ancient Orient. Greeks do not seclude themselves from the world, but enter into it, this is the heroism of the Greek character. <5>

The Peristasis shows centralising tendencies. The direction of the rectangular plan is defined in accordance with the gable fronts. Seclusion of the inside and openness of the outside. "The world thus is open and the human being is walking towards it with clear view and conscious about his goals. But he does not loose himself towards it like Indians and East Asians do. He preserves his individuality and his essence." Of course this type of purely psychological reasoning has become rather problematic today. And finally the Greek temple too explicitly shows its complementary relation between place and path components.

Without doubt the columns too at lest the Ionian and Corinthian types with their bundlestructure are closely related to the bundlepillars of Ancient Egypt, and in the wider sense with the whole manifold of fibroconstructive derivates of the Ancient Near East and Egypt.

These are just some remarks, but they indicate that wer are in front of necessary new orientations regarding theories of architecture and culture. The 'Ancient Greeks' are attributed with things which - in the framework of anthroology - have their roots much deeper in the early high cultures and even before.

Access path subject

In regard to the place subject Frey's discussions were rather limited. On the other hand, the path subject is much richer in regard to the materials discussed. The earliest temple outlines showed a striking extension lengthwise. The interior appears as architecturally modelled procession path towards the image of the deity. There are indicators, that the cella served originally for cults. There is an essential relation with the Egyptian temple. This is also shown by the fact that the divine image in certain temples (Selinus, Sicily) was not freely placed into the cella but had its own case.

In classic time the length of the cella shortens. The building develops into a more compact form. The temple becomes a case for the image of the deity. The fire altar is erected before the temple in the open air.

Here too Frey interprets the Greek temple using ideas we have gained historically about the Greeks and their personality. Frey emphasises individual independence, projects psychological standards on architecture. There were no superior axial systems, he maintains. Temple districts in Olympia and Athens looked like accumulations. There was no architectonically created path which was of any importance. Only in the period of late Hellenism and in Roman times we find axial arrangements. The oldest examples of axial arrangements are found in Kos and Milet. Evidently they were influenced by Ancient Egypt and the empire of the Seleucids.

In Greece procession streets, as for instance in Delphi, adapt to the natural environment. Greeks had a deep respect for nature, Frey assumes. It is quite different than Chinese universism he explains. East Asian cosmogonies derive from a "primordial dualism of female and male, of Yang and Yin, of heaven and earth. This creates the world and the human order within family and state." Note that Frey uses the term 'dualism' instead of polarity and that he interpretes the sequence in the sense of the Western metaphysical or biblical concept of 'creation'. In contrast to the Chinese situation, the decisive "primordial experience" (Urerlebnis) of the Greeks consists in "becoming conscious of the autonomous will... within oneself and within nature."

We have difficulties today with statements of this type presenting Greek thought as a unique and revolutionary discovery (B. Snell 1946: The Discovery of the Spiritual!). We gradually have become aware to what extent the development of Greek thought is basically a development from the Ancient Near East and Egypt. The so called 'presocratic' thought is clearly a transitional field. Heraclitus has his roots still in the Near Eastern / Egyptian substratum of polarity (Upper / Lower Egypt; 'Eightness' originally of 'Hermupolis'). The essential figures of this field are Parmenides and the atomists. Finally Plato and Aristotle appear as a transformed type of polarity characterised by an absolutely ideal 'realism' and, on the other hand, an empirism focussed on the 'real' world. In contrast to Frey, we might become aware that the "primordial experience" of the Greeks corresponds fairly to that of an East Asian human born and educated within what is philosophically called "Chinese universism".

In addition, the interpretation of the beginnings of Greek philosophy can be quite different today. The Greeks have torn the primary polar world of harmonious thought into pieces. They replaced the ancient world of polar harmonies by a new quasi schizoid world of incompatible analytical extremes, that is, of the natural and the spiritual worlds. It has thrown the history of Europe and the West into an unbelievable dynamism of centrifugality, uncontrolled production and degrading bloodsheds for an illusionary future..

From such insights into global cognitive developments we will probably place the emphasis in different ways. Not so much in the sense of Delphi and the veneration and respect of nature. We will rather see the Greek temple similar to those in Egypt as a human order placed within the natural environment and the cyclic cults as traditional heritage explaining the very specific human or social existence at this place from the depths of time.


Demarcated place subject

The tower as a place marker subject dominates in this cultural circle. Frey interpretes it in the frame of vertical movement. The Gothic tower celebrated the overcoming of the mass, the victory of spirit and will over matter. Above all in the form of tracery. The Gothic tower is thus a pure symbol. Further, it is not an isolated individual form. It is part of a group of buildings. Early Gothic times favoured many towers. The late Gothic period preferred the single tower. It became most important.

In the Occident, the Christian tower is not a symbol of God , Frey says, it represents the believer. As part of the mystical verticality in Gothic art and architecture it is expression of the area among other things. It shows the increased selfconsciousness of the occidental population and has its roots very probably in the Celtic Germanic folk character.

However there is a second place marker, the dome. The Roman antiquity knew it only as hollow form. However it is combined with the tower subject and with the concept of crossing (Vierung) and thus develops as a monumental place marker. The most important examples are the dome of the cathedral at Florence and the dome of St.Peter in Rome built by Michelangelo.

Frey discusses various drafts and interprets the dome either as a vertical dynamism or emphasises its relation with the feeling of the human body. However, what is most important in view of the dome is its analogy with heaven which we find explicitly - in the framework of polairty - in the case of the dome of the Hagia Sophia, Constantin's imperial church of Eastern Rome. Its vertical polarity is clearly described by Prokop. But this does not come up in Frey's discussion.

Access path subject

Here too, Frey deals separately with the path subject. Under Hellenistic and Roman influence the straight axis develops into the spine of the regional spatial organisation and gains dominant significance. Frey mentions above all the longitudinal type of hall. The early Christian Basilica is interpreted as the non plus ultra of a symbolically designed path.

Entrance gate, the atrium, the narthex are mentioned. The longitudinal hall (or main nave) with side naves representing a street hall lined by columns of the heavenly Jerusalem leads to the Presbyterium, the apokalyptic throne hall with the altar and the 'Thronos' in the depth of the apse, the episcopal seat (Sedia episcopalis), which probably represents the throne of God.

Symbolic forms of the emperor's cult were transferred into the liturgy. In this context the Byzantinisation of the Roman liturgy plays an important role. Frey considers the access path of the church as the sacrifical approach of the believers towards the main altar where they are supposed to deposit their offerings on lateral tables. This idea of the path remains basic for the Christian type of cult building in spite of stylistic and national distinctions.

Frey points out, that the circular church building and the central position of the altar could never overcome the longitudinal type of hall. This sounds very plausible in the framework of architectural anthropology. Evidently the longitudinal hall can be understood from its polar character with the main altar on one side and the nave, the access path on the other, as the complementary part. The longitudinal hall is defined as a community by the portal, the front-facade, which defines the inside and announces it semantically towards the public outside, in which the religious path looses its focus.

The longitudinal hall is a very pure type of the access-place scheme which is found in many other types of buildings as the ideological backbone. E.g. in palaces, thronehalls, law courts, schools, or in other institutionally significant buildings. In contrast to this the centralized type of church represents a similarly archaic type of spatial organisation related to the vertical polarity scheme, or, to 'semantic architecture' essentially set up as a symbol for its polar vertical axis. An often very elementary tectonic axis characterised by two contrasting domains representing - rooted in the local tradition -opposed categories like heaven and earth. However, on the monumental level, its technical production poses great problems. It is difficult to realise and thus had only few chances to be built on a large scale.

Frey continues his discussion of the transcendental meaning of the longitudinal hall into the catholic liturgy relating it to a particular christian universal spatial totality (Allraum) which he interpretes in a universal sense - that is astonomically and cosmologically and Euro-metaphysically - as 'spiritualisation of the path subject'.


Demarcated place subject

Frey emphasizes the Russian dome church, shows how it develops a strong 'place subject' by using transformed models of Constantinople. The tambour of the dome is made to increase its height and this produces the dome tower typical for Russian sacred architecture (Novgorod). However beyond these plausible processes Frey's interpretations are often questionable, explaining architectural form traditions based on human feelings. For instance the interpretation of the outer dynamism of the domes as 'flaring up of the prayer against the heavens' may be possible as a literary analogy, but is highly questionable in the framework of design theory. Similarly Frey's idea that uninhibited emotional expressions of Russians are getting lost in the infinite dimensions of the universe, that they live in a formless and placeless infiniteness of space and time sounds rather like a platitude. Such vague interpretations can also be taken as a cover up of the lack of factual knowledge in regard to the structural and formal processes that generated forms.

Access path subject

"Russian cultic architecture does not know the path subject." Frey outlines above all the "Ambulatio" (circumambulation) in the liturgy of the evening service. Priests and deacons come through the king's door of the Ikonostasis into the central domed part in which they walk in a circle offering incense to the icons. In contrast to the canopy in ancient Byzantine art (Hagia Sophia) the centre develops into a high tube which does not offer any conditions for movement. Frey describes the passive devotion of those who pray below the masklike image of the Pantocrator in the top part of the dome. The liturgy is fixed, similarly the canonised cycle of the pictures, as well as the liturgy of the annual festivals and the the spirit of the saints. Any consciously individual movement is frozen, paralized.

Frey draws two worlds facing each other. The earthly world of the community and the heavenly world of the presbytery, of the the paradise. They are summed up in the church building as a symbol of the cosmos. Particularly at the exchange prayer the whole represents a higher transcendental unit. Thus, here too, in fact we find polarity, mutual interaction of two contrasting and antithetical domains. In this "drama of the encounter of two worlds" (Trubetzkoy), the church acts as a microcosmic model of the macrocosm, as representing the unity of the world (All-Einheit). It is thus an isolated place marker. Being itself considered as an iconic sign it is venerated like an icon. Frey characterises it as a symbol of the terrestric blazing towards heavens. The crowd does not only get together within the church, it also moves around it in inner and outer galleries and even in the open air. In the case of a larger building complex the church may keep its isolated position. The ancient Russian type of church remains place marker in the larger environmental space.

Thus here too Frey's presentation is very interesting particularly in view of his discussion of polar relations, but, in many regards the interpretations remain arbitrary and vague. Evidently the Russian church is essentially a problem of horizontal and vertical polarity.


Demarcated place subject

"The 'stupa' is the basic form of Indian sacred architecture." Frey considers it to be a genuine place form, one of the oldest of prebuddhistic times and also the most popular and most diffused type of sacred architecture in the domain of Buddhism. "Both the Northindian Shikhara, as well as the Dravidian Vimana of Southern India are derived from it, have the same basic subject. Its originally semipherical form suggests the descendence from a tumulus of the royal tombs. Within Buddhism it becomes a symbol for the entrance of Buddha into Nirvana and on the other side it is a monument found on important places related to a Buddha or a Bodhisattva.

According to Frey the most important meaning of the stupa consists in its "geometrization of the mountain subject". The statement is based on numerous sources related to the term 'sacred mountain' presented and discussed by Frey. We have already hinted to the problems of the historical method in this context. Here too it is doubtful whether the historical method provides us with the relevant indicators of the development, particularly if one knows the traditional formal code imminent in iconic representations of Mount Meru. It often shows a very non-natural hourglass form. In its most narrow part in the middle it shows an impressive rope-like bulge ('torus'). This is an outline which is also representative for fibroconstructive signs and symbols.

Access path subject

"The Indian path form is defined by circumambulation, by walking around the place marker." Frey considers the 'ambulatio' (pradakshâna, 'Circumambulation') as primordial form in the morphological sense. The circumambulation raises the holy object to become the centre of being, the centre of the world. On the large South gate of the large stupa of Sanchi such processions around a holy tree are represented.

Frey then interpretes the Stupa as a petrified circular 'mandala' acting as a "map of the stations along the path of meditation" (Zimmer). The geometrical figure is read according to the 'tantras' relating the manifold of forms and apparances to the mandala's centre thus dissolving the manifold to the unity of the central point. This 'melting process' (layakrama), that is the mystic unification of the soul (jîva) with the highest being (paramâtman).

The famous Boro Budur in Java too reproduces this concept. The pilgrim, climbing higher and higher, must walk around the construction 6 times to reach the upper terrasses to gain the non iconic domain. He arrives at the Dhyani Bodisattvas, finally at the crownlike Dâgaba where - inaccessible for human eyes, the image of Gautama Buddha stands. "The path is a spiral which combines change and raising towards higher levels."

This characterization of the path as salvation is evidently a fairly late, a historical and evolved monumental interpretation of structural conditions which have deeper roots. It can be taken also as an example how higher culture, in this case Buddhism uses the continutiy of structural traditions to interprete them in new, that is in their own ways. The polar structure of the centre, thus its representative character for a harmoniously conceived world, is occupied by an anthropomorophous figurative element which- in favour of the polar principle - is made invisible at the same time. What is clear is the fact that in the case of the Indian stupa in general , as well as in the case of Borobudur, there is a striking type of demarcation of a place which evidently carries an important meaning from the depths of time into the present.

Frey deals also with the Chaytia halls and the freestanding Shikara temples, where internal or outer galleries are provided for the rite of circumambulation. But here too, we can question, whether circumambulation is the right interpretation in view of plans which are definitely axially linear and polar in their expression.

In the case of the 'World-Yantra' too with the mountain Kailasa as 'world center' Frey applies the scheme of the symbolic circle as worldview. All these concepts are evidently interpreted in too limited ways. In a domain essentially characterised by 'place and access path' relations they suddenly appear as a centralised circular system. Evidently they are rather late types of monuments influenced by geometrically centralised imperial concepts based on extended space dimensions. Thus by emphasizing the circling movement as path subject Frey interpretes the experience of time as the eternal return, which he sees as basic morphological concept of Indian spirituality. From these temporally cyclical wheel-concepts he ends up with the wheel as world domination. Very heterogeneous symbolic ideas are mixed here by Frey, only because in some way they have to do with the wheel. The historian often forgets that in prehistorical agrarian society cyclic time was one of the most common concepts.

In fact we are dealing with a problem of the historical method. Written and monumental history suggest certain concepts, certain ideas in a certain time. History in this sense is always fixed on its own perspectives. There is no continuity which would allow to understand the formation of such ideas, therefore the historian is forced to guess about their origins in a period which he considers as some sort of beginnings. This is entirely different if we use the anthropological method. In the framework of habitat anthropology we can reconstruct the prehistorical conditions of agrarian settlements as strongly formed by temporally cyclic conditions for a relatively simple reason: most of its material culture was not yet durable, not yet monumentalised, thus no linear time concepts yet. All objects, even most important ones had to be reproduced in cyclic periods. Since India in its larger parts remained a rural agrarian or tribal society, it is evident that pre-linear cyclic time concepts are still widespread. Evidently they influenced historical concepts.


Demarcated place subject

The tower is not important in the autochthonous architecture of China. The pagoda is of Indian origin and first appears in China under the influence of Buddhism. The sacrifical terrace is the autochthonous Chinese form of place marker. It is derived from altars devoted to sungods or earth spirits and has developed the specific form of clay terrasses. In Beijing their monumentalisation is shown. Height and geometry of the forms were decisive for assignment and function (circle for heavenly deities, square for earthly deities).

With a comparison to Koldewey's description of a prototype of the Zikurrat (round terrace building of El Hibba) Frey aims at what he takes for the primary and elementary of form formation, the cosmic experience of the human being. The Zikurrat is considered as "the summit, on which the deity - close to the stars - in heavenly heights has her residence.... " In contrast to this the Chinese terrace altar is arranged more closely to the ground. It is essentially the "consecration place of the believers." The "representatives of the state" will meet here. Through the cultic acts, which are performed "by the emperor as the son of heaven himself or by others in his representation" one integrates oneself "into the eternal processes, into the eternal divine action in nature."

The large circular temple in the sacrificial grounds of the heavenly altar is not accepted as place marker. It is merely considered as a monumentalised tent. According to Frey the factual representative of the Chinese sacred architecture is the circular tumulus "as it is characteristic for the imperial tomb sites of the Ming dynasty." In contrast to the stupas of India which emphasise the exterior, that is their semantic and symbolic qualities, its relation to the internal vaults is strongly expressed. The Chinese grave constructions are thus much closer to the tomb of Augustus in Rome than to the Indian stupas.

Evidently Frey goes too far with this comparison. All built forms in the ontological or sacred domain are relying primarily on semantic and symbolic expressions, their essence consists in being signs in the landscape. Providing protective inside space is definitely a secondary aspect. Similar problems of interpretation can be seen also in the following.

The "basic morphological form of Chinese architecture" is the "hall" (tien), which appears always on a "stony terrace". Quite arbitrarily Frey interpretes the latter as more important than the former. The latter appears to him merely as a substitute for a tent. The stone terrace as "a specially arranged holy place" is considered to be the primary element, on which the hall always preserves "the solidarity with the open space, which is characteristic for the spatial dimensions of the Chinese cult."

Of course these are all very vague discussions about relations in the framework of architectural history. They clearly show the lack of objective knowledge. The way of reasoning too is typical for the historical position of Frey and his time. The approach is essentially philologically supported. He relies on the translations of ancient chronicles to discuss the 'spirit' of a culture and its formal expressions. The meaning of the forms is then interpreted in accordance with this knowledge in all contexts irrelevant whether religious aspects, philosophical ideas or aesthetisc criteria are discussed.

Access path subject

"In Chinese architecture the path subject as a straight axis is again decisive for any planned arrangement." However, the design principles are different from those in Ancient Egypt or in the Occident. The temple district, which is usually secluded by walls from the outside, is organised internally by main axes with rectangular cross axes - as well organised lines of communication. The result seems to be a supremely complicated path system. The entire domain is characterised through a severely geometric structural formation.

The real organizing principle comes from path planning . The single edifices, the gates, temples, pavilions, bells- and drum-towers etc. are defined by these principles of order. Frey recognises two basic principles. On one hand he discovers a severe order which attributes places according to the social ranks within the system. On the other hand a considerable freedom of disposition is shown due to the fact that most important centres were lacking. "The Chinese temple is lacking the most sacred place as this is usual in the cult buildings of other cultures." In spite of Frey's great sensibility, he does not really manage to explain the hierarchical system of complementary relations. He admires the disposition of the Chinese temple but maintains that the temple compounds are lacking a most holy place ('sanctissimum'). This may be correct in regard to the teachings of Buddhism, but it can not be projected on architecture. The individual temples form the places on which the path system is focussed, and this is valid for temples related to agrarian cults as well as for Konfucian and Buddhistic temple districts. And particularly in temple systems of Buddhism at least one hall is dominant, the one in which the Buddha is either sitting or in lieing position. This temple is considered as the main place of the hole site. There are also inner and outer gates, sometimes pagodas which are all and clearly arranged according to a polar access-place scheme. It indicates the harmony of these complementary relations. Like most of the authors of his time Frey mystifies the complementary worldview of the Dao. " a way which is difficult to understand to Europeans", he says, "the ideas of rest and movement" are united.

In contrast to the analytical type of cognition called science, polarity is a preliminary and harmonious type, a primordial type of perception and conception which perceives contrasting categories and conceives them to form contradictive but harmoniously balanced units. Polarity existed in Presocratic philosophy, in particular and in purest form in Heraclitus' fragments. In the European Middle Ages too it was important as the concept of 'Coincidentia oppositorum'.

In other words, Frey in general cultivates a fairly evolved Eurocentric and idealistic view of things and their connections. This prevents him from seeing something in fact extremely simple, namely that in these Chinese spatial arrangements the place as sacred place and rest, as well as static continuity in a settlement, is correlated in very elementary ways to the access path and to man in movement in the most profound ways.



Frey concludes that his study had yielded a basic identity of the ideas of space and time in regard to figurative art as well as in view of architectural design. The concepts found were reflected similarly also in the religious and philosophical ideas. <6> The ways to experience being and time have their roots in a certain attitude of will of the human individual. In relation to the world, this implies moving in a field of complex polarities and thus leads to a great manifold of differenciations as well as different ethical and aesthetical values.

Frey then tries to see similarities between various cultural circles and wider connections which, in his view, are defined by geomorphous and climatic as well as by racial and historical conditions. He perceives close relations between the "cultural grand spaces", or even between spatially quite distant types of culture like for instance between India and Western Europe, between China and the occident. Such relations could be explained through historical exchanges or through similar climatical conditions, ways of life or ethnical kinship.

Evidently Frey's reasonings are influenced by the methods of ethnology, in particular, as mentioned above, by the German theory of cultural circles. However, he does not seem to be aware, that the surprising congruences he finds are essentially a product of his own method, which works with elementary perceptual and conceptual categories. <7>

Frey makes the distinction of 'cultural individualities', but besides this, he is convinced that there always existed basic forms (Grundformen) which were known and meaningful on a higher level than the merely locally, ethnically or temporally specific. There were primordial symbols in a wide diffusion and in surprising temporal continuty. Frey mentions the 'menhir subject' as monument and symbol of duration, the 'mountain symbol as a 'seat of gods', the 'dome' subject as the heaven's vaults, the 'gate' subject as sign of entrance.. etc.. Frey attributes these phenomena to "general types of human sensual relations and experiences ..."

With this we are at a decisive point in our present study. From Frey's highly idealistic outlooks we may turn our view towards the objective empirical. Surprisingly he suggests this turn himself. "An investigation could also start with these primordial symbols. One would have to study their diffusion, their changes and migrations typewise, their constitutive meaning in the religious, social, artistic and scientific life and cognition system of the populations surveyed." <8>

Evidently Frey is not aware of the potential that all 'primordial symbols' he mentions are fundamentally related to architecture in very elementary ways. It is an aspect which does not reveal with his method, which is essentially historical. But, in the framework of architectural anthropology it is clear that all the 'primordial symbols' Frey mentions are related to architecture. (s. Egenter 1994).

In spite of this, Frey suggests very clearly, that such primordial symbols should be studied cross culturally. He says: "A comparative art research, which is focused on the separition of scenical, ethnical, historical cultural units, should be confronted with an extremely contrasting type, namely a morphology of artful primordial symbols and subjects paired by a phenomenology of symbolisms in the arts." This is a very far sighted programme, which implicitly suggests an anthropology of art and architecture. And another sentence of Frey which is important: "Instead of the relativity of all spatial and temporal individuations it would be supported by the absolute essence of humanity and humanism." It is a strong suggestion to take aesthetics out of its conventional historistic and pseudo-theological circles and to research it in humanist conditions. Scientifically this means: in the framework of anthropology.

'Mankind in man' (Gebser), or, slightly varied as 'mankind in art', that corresponds fairly well to the program, which was undertaken in the present collection of studies put together under the title 'Anthropology of Habitat and Architecture'. What this research found as its most important and new phenomenon can be seen close to what Frey suggested as "primordial symbols". We called them "semantic architecture", in particular "toposemantic architecture". It is a type of 'fibroconstructive' architecture which is evidently very ancient. It can be assumed as a continuous hominoid and hominid tradition of constructive behavior in the natural environment (see 'constructivity', Yerkes 1929). With this equipment we can explain the origins of a great part of human culture in similarly wide dimensions cross culturally and diachronically with a temporal artifact factor of about 22 million years. We find the 'absolute of human essence'.

In another context we have hinted to O. F. Bollnow's book 'Man and Space' (1963) and the anthropology of space presented as a precursor of an anthropology of habitat and architecture. The same is valid for Dagobert Frey's study discussed here. In his case too space concepts developed by man and polar structural conditions play a fundamental role even though the approach is not performed to its final perfection. On the other hand Frey clearly and exclusively works cross-culturally in the domain of architecture. The view is - very likely for the first time in the 'history of the history of art' (Udo Kultermann) - on the narrow relation between the semantic character of sacred buildings and their polar relation to the access path. The importance of Dagobert Frey's study is also in its crosscultural extension. Like Bollnow's research it can be taken as a fundamental study and a milestone for cross-cultural anthropological research in the domains of art and architecture.