- Continued, figures, part 2 -



Fig. 8
STRUCTURAL-HISTORICAL SCHEMA OF DIFFUSION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF CULTURE (modified after K.J.NARR)

All sources, traditional (T), historical (H), and archaeological (A), are found on the virtual level S (i.e. temporally in the present). According to cultural types they are classified in three levels: G (gatherers-hunters), A (agrarian) and U (urban). Furthermore they are classified as either an 'autochthonous tradition' (parallelism, upwards) or are regarded as an 'accumulation' (diffusion from a higher level downwards), and are either dated or estimated. Structuro-historically, i.e. based on the ethno-historio-archaeologically densified source situation, it is possible to reconstruct certain continua in each cultural region and to analyze them with respect to interferences between the different levels. A Roman candelabra attributed to (U) can, because of its "fibroconstructive" structure, be related to (A) or (G). Its development can thus be reconstructed: certain elements could be of Mesolithic origin, the plant ornamentation would correspond to the Neolithic period, its bronze material links it with the Bronze Age, and its specific use is urban-Roman. Thus we will discover that many seemingly different objects are evidences of a very similar heterogeneous past in regard to conventional periodisation.



Fig. 9
THE ISHTAR SIGN AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARLY SUMERIAN TOWN

Simple phaseological model of settlement development according to territorial-historical criteria (change in the territorial and legal significance of the sacred sign (after Egenter 1984)


Fig. 10
SOURCE COMPLEXES ALONG THE NARR DIAGONAL



Fig. 10 / I.....Sumerian written characters (Egenter 1984)



Fig. 10 / II......Cult huts, reed columns, and other ancient Sumerian cult signs: Babylonian-Assyrian trees of life (Andrae 193O, 1933; Heinrich 1957)



Fig. 10 /III.......Huts of the gods, primitive shrines, fetishes (Djed, Abydos) imperial unity pillars and other ancient Egyptian cult signs



Fig. 10 / IV.......Egyptian pillars of bundeled plants



Fig 10 / V.......Cult signs of Graeco-Roman antiquity



Fig. 10 / VI.......Western, central and northern European Middle Ages



Fig. 10/ VII.......Present–day: traditional substrate of agrarian village cultures



Fig. 11
THE METHOD OF "SIFTING THE TOP LAYER" AS APPLIED TO AN EXAMPLE OF EUROPEAN FOLKLORE

(for details see vol. 7 of this series: Resplendent Poles and Plague Candles)

For this study a group of Austrian festivals with traditional cult signs were selected: maypole A, whipping posts B (Lungau) and C (Pongau), St.Benedict's plague candles D. Various analyses were undertaken to separate a traditional agrarian substrate from a superimposed Christian layer.



Fig. 12
PRINCIPLES OF EARLY STATE FORMATION
(The settlement genetic approach)

The schema shows three phases with autonomous villages (AV) at the very bottom. All are structured identically. On the second level three districts (HP) are dominated by a central village. The cults revolving around the renewal of the sacred markers are focused on the "prince’s" sanctuary. Cult markers functioning as territorial law codex. Sacrifices as tributes. Signs can depict the relation by super- or infraposition. On the uppermost level the central settlement of group 2 has gained control over districts 1 and 3 and forms the centre of a city state, with centralized communications (tributes), state god, and state cult. As founder of the state, the king simultaneously is the highest priest (owner of the deity). His political legitimation is based on his relation with the deity and its territorial implications. The territory‘s horizontal extension implies a vertical extension of the complementary upper domain: spherically it develops into the heaven of the state.


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