FIGURES AND FIGURE CAPTIONS



Key-illustration

A young orang–utan evidently is intensively at work. 16 metres above ground he builds his nest on top of a betel palm tree. With his feet he holds on to the thick materials; within less than five minutes, his strong arms have bent and woven the thinner materials into a stable structure in which he can feel 'cosy and at home' for one night (acc. to Galdikas-Brindamour/ Brindamour 1975)



Fig. 1
Map showing the nomadic migration of a considerably large group of about 50-80 chimpanzees during a period of 20 days (acc. to Nishida 1968)



Fig. 2
Map showing six different home ranges of chimpanzees and the partially observed nomadic migrations (acc. to Nishida 1968)



Fig. 3
Adult female chimpanzee sets forth to build her nest on top of a large palm tree (acc. to Goodall 1962)



Fig. 4
"Weaving" the 'crosspieces' (acc. to Goodall 1962)



Fig. 5
Construction methods of gorilla ground nests (acc. to Bolwig 1959)



Fig. 6
Schematic representation of six chimpanzee nests (acc. to Izawa/Itani 1966)



Fig. 7
Chimpanzee builds his tree nest in typical location between forking branches (acc. to Goodall/ VanLawick 1963)




Fig. 8, 9,
Two characteristic chimpanzee nests (acc. to Nissen 1931)




Fig. 10, 11
Above: untypical chimpanzee nest, which is supported by a thick branch below. Below: Two trees housing ten nests (both acc. to Nissen 1931)




Fig. 12, 13
Above: View of a chimpanzee nest used the night before. Below: Section of nest showing intertwined branches which form the supporting base of the nest (Both acc. to Nissen 1931)



Fig. 14
Mother-child relation in its developmental stages as reflected in nest forms (acc. to Kawai/Mizuhara 1959)



Fig. 15
High in the air, a chimpanzee is cosily asleep in his nest well–cushioned with leaves (acc. to Van Lawick-Goodall 1971)





Fig. 16, 17, 18
Chimpanzees in their nests. Above: the animal has caught a cold and therefore went to bed early, nibbling at some fruits or leaves, he is waiting to fall asleep. In the central picture a chimpanzee plays with a towel stolen from the zoologist. The lower picture shows a chimpanzee rolled up like a dog: the animals often change their positions during sleep, but generally prefer lying on their sides (acc. to Goodall and Van Lawick-Goodall 1963)



Fig. 19
Some typical positions of chimpanzees in their nests (acc. to Goodall 1962)



Fig. 20
Position of chimpanzee in its nest during rainfall observed by Goodall (1962)



Fig. 21
Two adult male chimpanzees have built day nests high above the foggy ground in the uppermost branches of a tree (acc. to Goodall/Van Lawick 1963)



Fig. 22a
Diagram showing spatial location of a group of six nests constructed and used by gorillas in a mountain forest surveyed in terms of constructional types and types of users (acc. to Kawai/ Mizuhara 1959)



Fig. 22b
Reconstruction of one gorilla group’s night camp based on a plan measured by Izawa/ Itani. The presumably dense bamboo thicket in the centre was left out in the drawing, to make the nests clearly visible (drawing: N. Egenter)



Fig. 22c
My home is my castle: spatial interpretation of the night camp as 'access-place-schema'. The female and child thus occupy the central and highly secured place. Four younger gorillas occupy and secure the corner posts of the pentagon. The ground nest of the dominant male is presumably positioned at the entrance path to the camp. The strongest and most experienced animal is thus imposed with the duties of a ‘doorkeeper’. This spatial arrangement shows a strong similarity with elementary ground–plans of human dwellings. A very basic form of securing space finds expression. <2>



Fig. 23
Map showing distribution of orang–utan nests in an area of approximately six square kilometres (acc. to Mackinnon 1974)



Fig. 24
Distribution of chimpanzee nests in the region surveyed by Izawa/Itani (1966). "Clusters" were found preferably in trees of 18-25 m height on the steep wooded slopes of river valleys



Fig. 25
Cartographic distribution of about 60 populations of mountain gorillas in the northern surroundings of Lake Tanganyika (Central Africa). The size of individual home ranges varies between 10 to 100 square miles. Dots represent individual animals living off home ranges. The hatched area in the centre is rather sparsely but continuously populated. The dotted line shows the border between the great northwestern equatorial forests and the broad savannas extending towards the south and the east.The mountainous areas of the savannas contain open woodlands (Map surveyed 1959; acc. to Emlen/Schaller 1960)



Fig. 26
Vegetational diagrams of the five most important habitats of mountain gorillas studied by Emlen/ Schaller (1960). Heights are given in feet. Density of the hatching indicates the density of the foliage of treetops and bushes.


- Under construction -

Fig. 27
The drawing shows the attempt to interprete the erection of the human body from early architectural conditions (acc. to F. Clark Howell)


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